Researches

ABSTRACT 

The word philosophy has Greek origins meaning “love of wisdom”. Coaches, in their search for coaching wisdom, collect knowledge from many sources. The coach will assimilate this knowledge and develop various principles, ideas and beliefs that together constitute a coaching philosophy. Anecdotal evidence and intuition gained through years of experience are invalua- ble sources of information when building a coaching philosophy. In addition, a wise coach will be familiar with the relevant facts and scientific evidence. Such know- ledge is useful in its own right, but can also offer an additional “viewpoint” when eva- luating the anecdotal evidence and educa- ted guesses that are essential in coaching. With ever increasing experience and know- ledge, the coach will re-evaluate and, if required, modify the coaching philosophy. Such an ongoing process is, indeed, healthy for a coach in his or her quest for coaching wisdom.

AUTHOR

 

Joseph Hunter, PhD, is an athletics coach and sports scientist for the NorthSport Athletics Academy, Millennium Institute of Sport and Health, New Zealand. Previously he has worked as a biomechanist for the New Zealand Academy of Sport providing services to elite performers in athletics and Olympic weightlifting 

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to describe the kinematics of the long jump approach and take-off and their effect upon the flight and the landing. Three di- gital video cameras, were used to capture the last two strides of the approach, the take-off phase, the flight and the landing of the eight jumpers participating in the men’s long jump competition at the 2006 European Cup 1st League-Group B Event in Thessaloniki, Greece, on 17 June 2006. A 3D-DLT analysis was conducted for the two final strides of the approach and the take-off and a 2D-DLT analysis for the landing. Results indicate that all partici- pants seemed to utilise the “longer penul- timate-shorter last stride” ratio. Two types of approach were revealed, the “straight forward” and the “imbalanced”. These ap- proach types did not affect the long jum- ping technique, but the stride angles of the last stage of the approach were highly cor- related (r> .70, p< .05) with the placement of the take-off foot on the board and with the lateral flight path of the Body Centre of Mass. 

AUTHORS

Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos is a PhD Can- didate in Biomechanics. He teaches in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. 
Georgios I. Papaiakovou teaches in the De- partment of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, the Aristotle University of Thes- saloniki, Greece.
Fotios S. Katsikas teaches in the Depart- ment of Physical Education and Sports Sci- ences, the Aristotle University of Thessalo- niki, Greece.
Prof. Dr. Iraklis A. Kollias is the Director of the Biomechanics Laboratory of the De- partment of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloni- ki, Greece.

 

 

 

ABSTRACT 

Training methods and warm-up practices aimed at developing high levels of muscu- lar power have recently received significant attention from researchers and applied practitioners. One such method utilises a combination of resistance training and sports–specific movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different intensity resistance exercises (i.e., 65, 75 or 85% 1-repetition maximum back squat) conducted over multiple sets prior to a 50m sprint in highly trained ado- lescent track and field athletes. A second- ary purpose was to investigate whether the athletes’ 1-repetition maximum back squat has an impact on the responses ob- served. The results suggest that perform- ing heavy load resistance exercises (HRE) prior to the sprint start has no significant effect on 50m sprint performance in highly trained adolescent track and field athletes, even when conducted over multiple sets. The results also suggest that practitioners may wish to consider improving a relative 1-repetition maximum back squat in al- ready trained adolescent athletes in order to improve maximal sprinting speed. Our data also suggests that there might be at least positive time saving benefits in per- forming HRE prior to sprinting over multiple sets utilising the protocols provided.

 

AUTHORS 

Nicholas Poulos is the Senior Strength and Conditioning Coach in athletics with the As- pire Academy for Sports Excellence in Doha, Qatar. He is currently a PhD scholar at the Edith Cowen University in Australia under- taking a number of studies investigating the use of postactivation potentiation (PAP) through Complex Training. 
Sami Kuitunen, PhD, is currently a Senior Researcher in Sport Biomechanics for the Research Institute for Olympic Sports in Jyväskylä, Finland. At the time of this study he was a Senior Biomechanist for the Aspire Academy for Sports Excellence in Doha, Qa- tar. He has published several articles about biomechanics of sprint running.
Martin Buchheit, PhD, is currently working as a Physiologist, Sports Science Depart- ment, ASPIRE, Academy for Sports Excel- lence in Doha, Qatar. He has worked as strength and conditioning coach for several years in professional team Handball and has been consultant for several federations and professional teams (soccer, handball, basketball, rugby, AFL). His main research interests focus on acute and chronic auto- nomic, cardiovascular and neuromuscular responses to high-intensity exercise.

 

ABSTRACT 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic parameters of the hurdling of women’s steeplechase world record holder Gulnara Galkina-Samitova. Digital video cameras were used to record seven hurdle clearances during the women’s 3000m steeplechase event at the Athens Grand Prix “Tsiklitiria” in July 2007. The kinemat- ics of the last stride, the take-off, the clear- ance, the landing and the first stride after the hurdle were extracted using a 3D-DLT kinematic analysis. Descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation and coef- ficient of variation) were utilised in order to compare parameters of the hurdling technique from lap to lap. It was found that Galkina-Samitova executed her hur- dling with greater speed and hurdle stride length than has been reported for women steeplechasers. Her approach stride length increased throughout the race, while a constant lowering of the peak height of the body centre of mass during the hurdle clearance was observed. Differences con- cerning the knee joint kinematics between the left and right leg were also found. The authors conclude that coaches must give greater emphasis to the bilateral execution of the hurdling technique. Furthermore, it is important to learn to execute hurdle clear- ances in fatiguing conditions.

AUTHORS 

Mr. Georgios X. Chortiatinos is a graduate student at the Aristotle University of Thes- saloniki, Greece. He has been recognised by the Hellenic Amateur Athletic Association (SEGAS) for his achievements as an U23 dis- tance runner.
Mr. Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos teaches Track and Field at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. He is a former middle distance runner.
Prof. Iraklis A. Kollias is the Director of the Biomechanics Laboratory at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. He com- peted in the shot put for the Greek National team from 1971 to 1978. 

 

 

ABSTRACT 

The techniques of the top eight placers in the men’s and women’s discus throw at the 2009 World Championships in Athlet- ics were studied by a team of researchers from the Institute for Applied Training Sci- ence in Leipzig, Germany, with the aim of obtaining the latest data and insight into the technical condition of the world’s cur- rent best throwers. The throws in both the preliminary round and finals were recorded with video cameras set up in the seating area of the stadium. The release parame- ters (release velocity, angle of release, etc), spatial and temporal characteristics of the throwing movement and other data were obtained from a three-dimensional photo- grammetric analysis of the best throws for which suitable recordings were available. To give guidance for coaches and athletes preparing for future high-level competi- tions, the mean values and standard de- viations were derived and compared with other parameters. Parameters describing the throwing technique were averaged for two groups of finalists in the two competi- tions and compared to those that explained the differences in the placings. 

AUTHOR 

Marko Badura holds a Diploma in Sport Sci- ence. He works at the Institute of Applied Training Science (IAT) in Leipzig, Germany. As an athlete, he placed 4th in the javelin at the 1990 IAAF World Junior Championships and held the German junior record for the javelin from 1990 until 2007. 

 

ABSTRACT 

The techniques of the top eight placers in the men’s and women’s shot put at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics were studied by a team of researchers from the Institute for Applied Training Science in Leipzig, Germany, with the aim of obtaining the latest data and insight into the techni- cal condition of the world’s current best throwers. The throws of the finalists were recorded with video cameras set up in the seating area of the stadium. The release pa- rameters (release velocity, angle of release, etc), spatial and temporal characteristics of the throwing movement and other data were obtained from a three-dimensional photogrammetric analysis. To give guid- ance for coaches and athletes preparing for future high-level competitions, the mean values and standard deviations were de- rived and compared with other parameters. It was found that in the women’s event the differences in performance distance can be almost completely explained by the dif- ferences in release velocity. The technique parameters contributing to these differ- ences are discussed. The men’s event was more complicated, as the angle of release and, to a certain extent, the release height were also important factors. Their roles and the differences between the glide and ro- tational techniques are discussed in detail. 

AUTHOR 

Wilko Schaa holds a Diploma in Sport Sci- ence. He works at the Institute of Applied Training Science (IAT) in Leipzig, Germany, lectures in the German Coach Education System and is a throwing events coach.

 

 

ABSTRACT 

The techniques of the finalists in the men’s and women’s javelin throw at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics were studied by a team of researchers from the Institute for Applied Training Science in Leipzig, Germany with the aim of obtaining the latest data and insight into the techni- cal condition of the world’s current best throwers. The throws in both the prelimi- nary round and finals were recorded with video cameras set up in the seating area of the stadium. The release parameters (re- lease velocity, angle of release, etc) were obtained for all the throws. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the throwing movement and other data were obtained from a three-dimensional photogrammet- ric analysis of the best throws for which suitable recordings were available. To give guidance for coaches and athletes prepar- ing for future high-level competitions, the mean values and standard deviations were derived and compared with other param- eters. Parameters describing the throwing technique were averaged for two groups of the finalists in the two competitions and compared to find those that explained the differences in the final placement.

AUTHOR 

Professor Frank Lehmann is the Throws Group Leader for at the Institute for Applied Training Science (IAT) in Leipzig, Germany.  He was the leader of the IAT’s project to analyse the shot put, discus and javelin com- petitions at the 2009 IAAF World Champi- onships in Athletics.   

 

ABSTRACT 

Road runners and joggers are the largest group of athletics participants in Europe and the running market is expanding rapidly. However, few in this group consider them- selves to be inside the traditional sport of athletics and only a small proportion is cur- rently affiliated to an athletic club and thus to their national athletic federation. During the first running wave, which took place from the late 1960s through the 1980s, federations tended to ignore road running and ‘missed the boat’ on the opportunities it offered. This study, a condensed and edited version of a report commissioned by Euro- pean Athletics, examines the policy issues federations face in regaining market share. Based on desk research, an on-line survey of European Athletics’ 50 Member Federations and consultations with experts, it describes the running market’s history and major trends, including a second running wave that has now been taking place for more than 10 years in most countries. It identi- fies the main challenges faced by European Athletics, the federations and athletics clubs and then concludes with a set of recommen- dations, including working together with existing event organisers and (re)position- ing themselves as the ‘natural authority’ on road running, to ensure they catch the next boat. 

AUTHOR 

Prof. Dr. Maarten van Bottenburg, holds a chair in Sport Development at the Utrecht School of Governance of Utrecht University. 
Prof. Jeroen Scheerder, teaches Sport Policy and Sport Management at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium.
Dr. Paul Hover is a senior researcher at the W.J.H. Mulier Institute in the Netherlands. 

 

 

ABSTRACT

echnical preparation are critical for his/her athlete’s success. All coaches face this challenge, regardless of the athlete’s level of ability or performance. The author, who has coached two Olympic champions as well as a number of other top-class high jumpers and is currently the Director of the IAAF World High Jump Centre in Cologne, Germany, starts with a discussion of the impor- tance of understanding the technical model in his event.  He then describes the key elements of the approach he has developed while working with athletes who are normally quite talented but may be under-developed from a train- ing or technical point of view.  It includes two strategies for technique development: a) checking whether the athlete’s personal style contributes to performance or hinders the achieve- ment of key technical elements and b) developing the athlete’s technical model based on an assessment of his/her reactive strength, which is the most important factor affecting the take-off in the high jump. He then gives a brief description of the four elements of the technical preparation programme he uses: a) development of general qualities, b) development of specific qualities, c) development of specific skills and d) technical training. 

AUTHOR

 

Wolfgang Ritzdorf, PhD, is the Director of the IAAF World High Jump Centre and a lecturer at the German Sport University in Cologne. He is a former German national women’s coach for the high jump and has worked with two Olympic champions – Ulrike Meyfarth and Heike Henkel. Cur- rently he coaches two 2.34m high jumpers: Kabelo Kgosiemang (BOT) and Eike Onnen (GER). 

ABSTRACT

The success of 17 year-old Mahamad Al- Mannai (QAT), who won the silver medal in the octathlon with a score of 6,232 points at the 6th IAAF World Youth Championships in Bressanone, Italy, in July 2009, may have come as a surprise to some observers.  But for the author, it was the product of a systematic pro- gramme of talent identification and development at the ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence in Doha, Qatar. Six ASPIRE athletes competed in Bres- sanone and all achieved new personal bests in their events.  In a follow-up to an article, published in NSA in 2008, that described the talent identification procedures used at ASPIRE, the author shows how the academy’s talent devel- opment programme works with special reference to the sport of athletics.  He gives an overview of each of the pro- gramme’s six pillars: 1) Introduction Phase, 2) Long-Term Athlete Develop- ment & Career Plan, 3) Monitoring Per- formance, 4) Sport Education, 5) Train- ing Camps and 6) Competition Camps with additional information on Al-Man- nai’s experience.  He concludes with the points that Al-Mannai, who has trained on a regular basis over a period of four years, has an excellent basis for further performance improvement and will face a critical stage, when he graduates from ASPIRE in 2011. 

AUTHOR

 

Ralf Iwan is the Chief of the Athletics Section at the ASPIRE Academy in Doha, Qatar.  A former decathlete, he has coached international performers such as Lars Börling (GER), Elmarie Gerryts (RSA) and Jamie Quarry (GBR). 

ABSTRACT

 

chilles tendon problems comprise a complex of complaints wide-spread in sport, particularly among athletes in the running and jumping events. In an accompanying article, the author provid- ed descriptions from the current sports medicine literature of the biomechanics of the Achilles tendon, the main problems that affect it, the mechanisms at work in injuries and the factors that must be taken into account in the prevention of such injuries and conditions.  Drawing on the same literature, this article addresses the rehabilitation that is necessary for an athlete to return to training and competi- tion while minimising the risk of re-injury. The aim is to provide practical informa- tion that will be of value to therapists, coaches and athletes as they to work together to plan and structure individu- alised rehabilitation programmes. It con- tains an overview of the main types of measures used in the rehabilitation of Achilles tendon injuries and conditions, including training, physical and thera- peutic, conditioning, biomechanical and local pharmaceutical means. It then gives abstracts of therapeutic concepts in which these measures are employed that have been developed by five authors.  The article concludes with some general advice on the design and implementation of a rehabilitation programme.   

AUTHOR

Susanne Kroesche is a graduate of the German Sport University in Cologne and is currently the head of training in a sport therapy centre in Limburg, Germany. After finishing her career as a heptathlete she worked in several institutions as a therapist. 

 

ABSTRACT

 

it is crucial to assess an athlete’s dietary intake and control the evolution of his/her anthropometric variables throughout the training season. However, there are few modern studies in this area carried out on elite adult track and field athletes. In a project commissioned by the Spanish athletics federation and supported by the Spanish Sports Council, the authors made controlled diet and body composition assessments of members of the Spanish national athletic team training at the national high-performance training cen- tre in Madrid. The sample included 19 female and 19 male elite athletes from the middle- and long-distances, sprints, jumps and combined events. Working closely with the coaches, the authors gathered extensive data, including anthropometric measurements, nutritional intake and energy expenditure. They compared their findings with references and suggested intakes published by a variety of sources. They were able to draw 18 conclusions, including the identification of a) deficits in the consumption of carbohydrates as well vitamins D and E for the athletes studied, b) a deficit in fluid intake for the middle- and long-distance runners and c) a deficit in folic acid for the female athletes. They end with a recommendation for further research projects in this area, with larger samples and specific protocols. 

AUTHORS

 

Guadalupe Garrido Pastor, PhD, is a pro- fessor in the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences at the Technical Uni- versity of Madrid. Manuel Sillero Quintana, PhD, is a profes- sor in the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences at the Technical Universi- ty of Madrid and he is an athletics coach. Amaia García Aparicio, PhD, is an associ- ate professor in the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences at the Camil- lo José Cela University in Madrid. Alicia Canda Moreno, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Faculty of Physical Activ- ity and Sport Sciences at the Camillo José Cela University and the head of anthro- pometry services at the National Sports Medicine Centre in Madrid. Susana Martínez Sánchez is a technician at the National Sports Medicine Centre in Madrid. 

ABSTRACT

This study investigated fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular and stride characteristics during and immediately after a hard middle-distance running effort. Eighteen well-trained male dis- tance runners performed a maximal 20m sprint test and maximal voluntary con- tractions (MVC) on a leg press machine before and immediately after a 5000m time trial. In all the tests the EMG of five lower limb muscles was measured. The results showed that muscle fatigue measured in maximal exercises is not related to the fatigue induced changes during the time trial. The fatigue in the 20m sprint test was related to the maxi- mal 20m pre-test velocity, but the veloc- ity loss during the time trial was inverse- ly related to 5000m performance and training volume. The authors conclude that the fatigue measured at maximal effort both pre- and post-time trial is more related to sprint performance than endurance performance and that the fatigue measured during the time trial is related to endurance performance and factors affecting pacing strategy. The findings support the idea that pacing strategy is regulated in an anticipatory manner by a central governor, which ensures that physiological reserves are maintained. This article was originally published in the International Journal of Sport Medicine under the title “Fatigue during a 5-km running time trial”. 

AUTHORS

 

Ari Nummela, PhD, is a researcher at the Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland. Karen Heath, PhD, is a researcher at the University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. Leena Paavolainen, PhD, is a researcher at the Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland. Mike Lambert, PhD, is a Professor at the University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. Alan St Clair Gibson, PhD, is a Professor at the University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa Heikki Rusko, PhD, is a Director at the Research Institute for Olympic Sports and a Professor in the Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Timothy Noakes, MBChB, MD, DSc, is a Professor at the University of Cape Town and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. He is a member of NSA’s International Scientific Advisory Board. 

ABSTRACT

The interaction between a coach and a biomechanical diagnostician is a crucial element of developing a modern high- level athlete’s performance. The aim of such co-operation should be to improve performance, but differences in approach, interests, understanding and technical terminology between the coach and di- agnostician can complicate the process. Based on his experience working in the German federal sports system, the author explains that the role of the diagnostician is to provide an interface between science and practice. As such, the diagnostician cannot be fully in either camp but must be comfortable working in and speaking the language of both. He outlines the philoso- phy and the main areas of co-operation: 1) performance enhancement, 2) injury prevention and rehabilitation, 3) coaches education, stressing the importance of communication and need for diagnosti- cians to build teams within their fields of expertise and with experts from different fields, like physiology and psychology. He then presents examples of co-operation, highlighting the interaction between the coach and diagnostician. He concludes by stating that secrets for successful biome- chanical services do not exist, it is all about face-to-face communication, work, dedi- cation and sustainability.

AUTHOR

Falk Schade, is a Biomechanical Analyst at the German Olympic Training Centre Rhein-Arena, Germany. He was member of the research team in the IAAF Biomechanics Projects at the IAAF World Championships 1997, 2005, and 2009. He is also a lecturer at the IAAF Academy.

ABSTRACT

To achieve maximum success an athlete must deliver excellent results, create an ac- tive relationship with society and become a positive role model, first and foremost for young people. Naturally, the athlete’s focus on sporting objectives will put time constraints on the other aspects and there- fore these must be carefully managed, ide- ally with the help of the athlete’s support team. This role leads to tasks and respon- sibilities that go beyond physical, technical and mental preparation and calls for a way of working and organisation that might be seen as revolutionary in the world of sport. The author describes how Team75plus, the support team behind Gerd Kanter, the 2008 Olympic Champion in the discus, has devel- oped an ideology and system of communi- cation with the public and specific target groups that have helped to establish Kanter as one of athletics’ top ambassadors, both in his native Estonia and internationally. He gives an overview of the team’s guid- ing principles, starting with “Fair Play”, the message format and the communica- tions means to support the shared goal of reaching the top. The concept developed by Team75plus was awarded the top prize in the 2010 European Athletics Innovation Awards.

AUTHOR

Raul Rebane was a popular sports com- mentator and programme director for Es- tonian Television (ETV). He worked at 11 Olympic games (1980-2008) as a sports commentator and as a member of the Euro- pean Broadcasting Union’s OPS Infogroup.  From 2000 he has worked as a strategic communication consultant, conference speaker and lecturer.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the walking techniques of the top finishers in the three senior races at the 23rd IAAF World Race Walking Cup in Cheboksary, Russia. Each race was videoed with two cameras placed at the side of the course where the athletes passed on every lap. Analysis was made of the top eight 20km women, top eight 50km men, and the third to 10th place finishers in the men’s 20km. The results showed that a balance between main- taining a long stride length and a high stride frequency was crucial in achieving success. Because of the limitations imposed by IAAF Rule 230, the hip and ankle muscles must have the requisite power and endurance to develop and maintain high speeds. Men and women differ in the amount of rotation that occurs at the hips and shoulders. Men are able to attain longer strides by moving their hips through larger ranges of movement.  In contrast to the joint angles of the legs, there was a large variation in the angles of the shoulders and elbows. It is advisable for athletes to concentrate on maintaining efficient technique in training and in competition.

AUTHORS

Brian Hanley, BSc, is a Senior Lecturer in Sport & Exercise Biomechanics in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University in Great Britain, where he is working towards a doctorate. Athanassios Bissas, PhD, is a Senior Lec- turer in Sport Biomechanics in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University in Great Britain. Andrew Drake, PhD, is the Director of the Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group in the Department of Biomolecular & Sport Sciences at Coventry University in Great Britain. He is a UK Athletics Level IV Performance Coach in Race Walking and a Level III Performance Coach in Middle & Long Distance Running. 

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to measure and analyse the important kinematic variables in elite race walking. Video recordings of 80 athletes were taken during men’s 20km, women’s 20km and men’s 50km competitions at the 7th European Cup Race Walking in 2007. Stride length,stride frequency, positions of the body segments and joint angles were analysed. Among the findings were that the fastest athletes had stride lengths of approximately 70% of body height and were able to maintain high stride frequencies.

Joint angles did not appear to be important to walking speed; instead,the speed of movements at the joints was significant. Twelve competitors in each race were analysed at three other points in their races to assess the effects of fatigue on technique. On average, all groups of athletes slowed down as the race progressed. In men, this was mostly due to shorter stride lengths; in women,it was due to lower stride frequencies.

Nearly all athletes adhered to the straight leg rule of race walking but most had short, normally  undetectable flight times. The 50km men had knee contact angles that decreased significantly with fatigue; this leads to an increased risk of disqualification.

Brian Hanley, BSc, is a Senior Lecturer in Sport & Exercise Biomechanics in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University in Great Britain, where he is working towards a

doctorate.

 

Andrew Drake, PhD, is the Director of the Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group in the Department of Biomolecular & Sport Sciences at Coventry University in Great Britain. He is a UK Athletics Level IV Performance Coach in Race Walking and a Level III Performance Coach in Middle & Long Distance Running.

Athanassios Bissas, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Biomechanics in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University in Great Britain.

 

New studies in athletics  yr:2008 vol:23 iss:4 pg:17